Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes/issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

Display Method:      

Application of moving epidemic method to study influenza epidemic intensity in winter and spring in Ningbo
Keqin Ding, Shaohua Gu, Xuying Lao, Yi Chen, Suli Jiao, Hongjun Dong, Bo Yi
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](201) [FullText HTML](87) [PDF 3031KB](2) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo use moving epidemic method (MEM) to study the epidemic intensity of seasonal influenza epidemic in Ningbo, establish influenza surveillance and early warning mechanism and provide evidence for the prevention and control of influenza.MethodsThe positive rates of virus detection in winter and spring influenza season in Ningbo from 2013 to 2018 (40th week to the 20th week) were used, the MEM model was established to analyze the epidemic intensity of the seasonal influenza epidemic in Ningbo from 2018 to 2019.ResultsIn the period of 2018–2019, the threshold of the initial influenza epidemic period in Ningbo was 22.68%, and the threshold of the late epidemic period was 23.32%. The initial epidemic period was from the 40th week of 2018 to the 1st week of 2019. In the 2nd week of 2019, the influenza incidence broke through the initial threshold and the epidemic intensity was low, and a medium epidemic intensity was recorded from the 3rd week. From the 8th week to the 9th week, the influenza epidemic intensity was high. The epidemic intensity gradually decreased to medium level from the 10th week to the 14th week and reached a low epidemic level from the 14th week to the 18th week. After the 19th week, it was the late epidemic period. The sensitivity of the MEM model was 80.04%, the specificity of the MEM model was 87.18%. The goodness of the model was good.ConclusionThe start time and intensity of influenza epidemic can be calculated by using the influenza early warning model established with MEM, and the model can be directly evaluated. This method provides a scientific basis for the early identification and early warning of influenza epidemic.
Epidemiological investigation of a brucellosis outbreak in a county in Guangdong
Lei Wang, Yao Yi, Xuguang Chen, Changyun Sun, Meng Zhang, Fengmei Zeng, Yufu Zeng, Dongliang He, Aiping Deng
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](298) [FullText HTML](78) [PDF 2464KB](11) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate and verify a food-borne outbreak of brucellosis caused by drinking raw goat’s milk in county in Guangdong province, and provide suggestions for the prevention and control of similar outbreaks.MethodsThe case finding was conducted through case investigation and hospital information system retrieval, the screening and confirmation of Brucella infection was conducted, and descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods were used for analysis.ResultsA total of 30 cases and 6 latent infection cases were found. The cases occurred during 10th July-18th August in 2019 in this outbreak with same infection source. The main clinical manifestations of the cases were fever (70.00%), muscle and joint pain (46.67%), fatigue (43.33%), etc. A total of 21 Brucella strains were isolated from the blood samples of the people surveyed, all the strains were B.melitensis type 3. According to the analysis, the only definite risk factor was drinking raw goat milk from farm compared with drinking no His milk [RR=16.91 (2.38?119.96)] and compared with drinking boiled milk [RR=36.36 (5.07?260.58)]. Besides, the Brucella infection was related to goat milk drinking in a dose-response manner (χ2=4.437, P=0.035) and associated with drinking time.ConclusionThis was an outbreak of brucellosis caused by drinking raw goat milk contaminated by B. melitensis type 3.
Analysis on rabies exposure surveillance in Guangzhou, 2013–2017
Haiyan Chen, Conghui Xu, Wenfeng Ren, Jianmin Xu, Yuehong Wei, Shouyi Chen, Hao Zhang
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](172) [FullText HTML](65) [PDF 2376KB](1) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectivesTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of rabies in Guangzhou.MethodsThe surveillance data of rabies in Guangzhou from 2013 to 2017 were used for descriptive analysisResultsThe rabies exposure rates were 823.64/100 000, 822.86/100 000, 901.72/100 000, 988.30/100 000, and 1 187.2/100 000, respectively, in Guangzhou from 2013 to 2017, showing an increasing trend (P<0.05). Animal-related injuries in each year mainly occurred in summer and autumn (June-October), accounting for 45.17%–48.41% of the total cases. Dogs were responsible for most animal-related injuries, accounting for 65.53% of all the injuries. The proportions of degree Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposures ranged from 56.16% to 61.02% and from 28.61% to 31.38%, respectively, during 2013–2017. All the exposed persons received rabies vaccination. However, the annual passive immunization rare was relatively low during this period, which was only 15.06%, 6.91%, 7.30%, 5.38% and 7.06%, respectively.ConclusionsA large number of people exposed to rabies in Guangzhou. The injection rate of rabies immunoglobulin was low in local degree Ⅲ exposure cases. It is suggested that the health education about rabies should be strengthened to increase the passive immunization rate and the joint prevention and control mechanism by multi departments should be established to strengthen dog management.
Epidemiology of rabies and control suggestions in less developed Lyuliang mountain area between Shanxi and Shaanxi
Yaling Jin, Xiaoyan Tao, Hao Li
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](32) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 2315KB](0) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of rabies in less developed Lyuliang mountain area between Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, find out the problems in rabies prevention and control, and provide reasonable suggestions for the prevention, control and elimination of rabies.MethodsDescriptive epidemiological method is used to analyze the rabies surveillance data in Lyuliang mountain area from 2008 to 2018 collected from the Information Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Excel 2003 was used for data entry.ResultsFrom 2008 to 2018, a total of 23 rabies cases were reported in this area. The cases were distributed in 11 counties, the cases mainly occurred from May to November, and most cases were aged 45—65 years, and the male to female ratio of cases was 2.83∶1. The cases in farmers accounted for 86.96% of the total.ConclusionThe incidence of rabies showed obvious seasonal, area and population distribution characteristics in this area. Moreover, problems existed in local rabies surveillance system, local people had insufficient hazard awareness and heavy burden vaccination costs. Because farmer is populations at high risk for rabies, it is necessary to strengthen the rabies prevention and control in less developed areas for the better implementation of rabies elimination.
Evaluation of nested polymerase chain reaction in detection of pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid
Guozhong Tian
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](73) [FullText HTML](59) [PDF 3874KB](1) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility of the application of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid samples and provide the reference for rapid and accurate diagnosis of diseases in clinical practice.MethodsA nested-PCR was designed by using the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, includinf two PCR amplification processes by using two pairs primers. The bacterial DNA, which was extracted from cerebrospinal fluid, was amplified firstly by PCR using first pair primers. And the second PCR amplification was followed using the second pair primers. The DNA template was the first PCR amplification products. The products of the second PCR amplification were sequenced. The pathogen was determined by comparing and analyzing the sequences. The concentration of pure Brucella DNA was determined by DNA spectrophotometry. The sensitivity of nested-PCR was evaluated by using serial dilutions of DNA template. Two-fold serial dilutions were prepared from bacterial suspension.ResultsThe minimum detection limit of nested PCR was about one copy number of DNA. The cerebrospinal fluid samples of clinical patients were detected by using nested PCR. In 40 clinical cerebrospinal fluid samples, about 1 460 bp electrophoresis strips were detected in 37 samples. The sequencing results indicated that 7 cases were Neisseria meningitidis, 1 case was Pseudomonas alcaligenes infections, 22 cases were Pseudomonas poae infections. Two cases were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. One case was Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Four cases were unknown bacterial infections, and 3 cases had negative bacterial DNA detection results.ConclusionThe nested-PCR can be used in rapid detection of bacterial pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid with accurate results.
Genetic characteristics and drug resistance of HIV strains isolated in Taiyuan, Shanxi, 2016–2017
Lin Mei, Mengze Gan, Jing Hu, Qiyu Zhao, Dequan Meng, Yi Feng, Hong Han, Yuhua Ruan, Ting Han, Yiming Shao, Hui Xing
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](223) [FullText HTML](66) [PDF 3520KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the distribution of virus subtypes and the spread of drug-resistance of HIV isolated from untreated people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Taiyuan, Shanxi province during 2016-2017.MethodsA survey was conducted in newly reported and untreated PLWHA in Taiyuan from August 2016 to December 2017. Blood samples were taken from them for the extraction of HIV nucleic acid RNA, the pol region sequences were obtained, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed for HIV subtype determination. Drug resistance was analyzed by using the Stanford University HIVdb Program library, and HIV-1 molecular network analysis was performed with software HyPhy 2.2.4 and software Cytoscape 3.6.1.ResultsA total of 227 pol region sequences were obtained from 251 newly reported and untreated PLWHA in Taiyuan. The study found that HIV-1 strains isolated in Taiyuan were predominated by subtype CRF01_AE, accounting for 52.0% (118/227), followed by CRF07_BC (32.6%, 74/227). The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in the newly reported and untreated PLWHA was 5.3% (12/227), the resistance rate to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) was 5.3% (12/227), and the resistance rate to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) was 1.3% (3/227), no protease inhibitor (PI) resistance was found. The molecular network access rate was 40.1% (91/227) according to the 1.5% gene distance threshold, and 12 clusters were found. The molecular network access rate was high in PLWHA infected with subtype CRF79_0107 (P=0.01).ConclusionMore than 80% of HIV-1 strains detected in Taiyuan belonged to subtype CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC, and the drug resistance rate to NNRTI was over 5%. The clustering transmission of infection of CRF79_0107 has been formed, so the investigation and intervention of this population need to be strengthened.
The application of semi-logarithmic line graph in epidemiological research
Yangxi Zhang
Corrected proof
[Abstract](78) [FullText HTML](75) [PDF 1346KB](11) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveThis paper introduces the structure and application of semi-logarithmic line chart, and studies the time distribution of new pneumonia epidemic in China by using semi-logarithmic line chart, and analyzes the change of epidemic speed of new pneumonia.ResultAccording to the analysis of the time distribution of the new pneumonia patients, the transmission speed of the new pneumonia patients was obviously decreased, the semi -logarithmic line was gradually flattened, and the Daily link ratioDLR was close to one. If the prevention and control during the return period of the Springfestivalis proper, the epidemic is expected to gradually decline.ConclusionThis study introduces the application of semi-logarithmic line graph in the study of new pneumonia. The transmission rate of new pneumonia decreased obviously, and DLR tended to be one.
Establishment of TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of Koutango virus
Qikai Yin, Xiaojing Chen, Shihong Fu, Wenjing Liu, Fan Li, Wenwen Lei, Ying He, Songtao Xu, Guodong Liang, Kai Nie, Huanyu Wang
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](14) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 0KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo establish a real-time quantitative TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the rapid detection of Koutango virus (KOUTV) in mosquito borne arbovirus surveillance.MethodsAll gene sequences of KOUTV were downloaded from GenBank for multiple sequence alignment. Specific primers and probes were designed for the highly conserved region of NS5 gene. The specificity of established TaqMan RT-PCR assay was evaluated with other 9 viruses from 5 families, and the stability of the assay was verified by parallel repeated experiments. Moreover, an absolute quantitative analysis model for the NS5 gene copy number of KOUTV was set up with in vitro transcribed RNA standards.ResultsThe established TaqMan RT-PCR assay has good specificity and sensitivity. No cross reaction with other arbovirus was observed and the sensitivity was 1.0×102 copies/reaction. The coefficients of variation of Ct values in repeated detection of same sample were all less than 1.5%. A total of 6328 mosquito samples in 112 batches collected in Xinjiang were tested with the established assay and the results showed KOUTV negative in all samples.ConclusionA high specificity and sensitivity TaqMan RT-PCR assay for KOUTV was successfully established.
導 讀
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 1699KB](2) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
$v.abstractInfoEn
Analysis on surveillance data of rabies in Chongqing, 2018
Kun Su, Hong Yin, Yafei Li, Han Zhao, Yu Xia, Yu Xiong, Juan Yi, Lin Yang, Li Qi, Wenge Tang, Qin Li
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](16) [FullText HTML](15) [PDF 0KB](1) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of rabies in Chongqing in 2018 and provide evidence for the control and prevention of rabies.MethodsThe incidence data of rabies in Chongqing in 2018 were collected from national infectious disease reporting information management system, the data of case exposure and prophylaxis from the rabies investigation database of Chongqing, and the data of dogs biting events from national public health emergency management information system. Descriptive epidemiological methods were applied to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of rabies cases.ResultsA total of 18 rabies cases were reported in Chongqing in 2018, with a reported incidence of 0.06/100,000. The majority of the cases were people over 60 years old (61.11%) and farmers (88.89%). All the cases were from rural areas of suburb counties and districts. Two geographic epidemic clusters were identified in six districts and counties in western Chongqing and three districts and counties in northeastern Chongqing. Up to 94.44% of rabies cases were victims of dog bites or scratch, and 61.11% of the cases exposed to stray dogs. None of these cases received standard prophylaxis after rabies exposure. Up to 88.89% of the dog biting events occurred in rural areas and 18.52% of the dog biting events affected more than 10 people.ConclusionThe incidence of rabies in Chongqing continued to decline in 2018 and the areas affected by the epidemic further decreased. The disease mainly occurred in rural areas of several districts and counties in western and northeastern Chongqing. The most rabies affected population was the people over 60 years in rural areas. The rabies cases were mainly caused by dog biting, and the proportion caused by stray dog biting increased further, and all the cases received no substandard post-exposure prophylaxis.
Sequence analysis on L gene of rabies virus isolated from wild Melogale moschata and domestic dogs in Zhejiang
Xiaoguang Wang, Yongliang Lei, Fuming Liu, Wuyang Zhu, Xiaoyan Tao
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 3433KB](1) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the L gene sequences of rabies virus isolated from wild Melogale moschata and domestic dogs and the mutation and genetic evolution characteristics of LP at the molecular level in Zhejiang.MethodsThe nucleic acid sequence of the L gene coding region was determined by using laboratory-positive rabies virus samples, and the sequences of nucleotide acid and amino acid of L gene were analyzed with software bioanalysis, and the encoded protein were aligned with 36 reference sequence encoding regions from GenBank.ResultsThe full-length nucleotide acid sequences of the L gene of rabies virus strains isolated from wild Melogale moschata (F02, F04) and domestic dogs (D01, D02) were obtained by sequencing and submitted to GenBank. The ORFs were all 6387 bp, and all the encoding regions started with two consecutive codons ATG, encoding 2128 amino acids. The short sequences of specific functions on the conserved domain of LP were almost completely conserved, and the sequence conservation between each domain was slightly poor. The polarity of most mutations did not change, and most of them were nonsense mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wild rabies strains isolated from Melogale moschata and domestic dogs in Zhejiang belong to the traditional rabies virus Asian lineage and belong to the same phylogenetic group of the widely spread rabies virus in China.ConclusionThe composition of the rabies virus L gene in Zhejiang is consistent with other traditional rabies viruses. The constructed phylogenetic tree has the same analytical effect as the N gene. The rabies virus from Melogale moschata still has the genetic characteristics of the native rabies virus. Domestic dog rabies virus might has same origin with rabies viruses in other host animals in China and might has cross transmission recently. Rabies viruses from different hosts have the evolution characteristics of population diversity and area specific spread characteristics.
Investigation of an outbreak of foodborne illness caused by norovirus G.17
Mingliang Wang, Wei Wang, Shuiying Yun, Yun Bai, Lijun Ren, Xiaoxiao Bai, Congwei Liu, Caoxin Bao, Lingyan Su, Xiaochen Ma
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](283) [FullText HTML](91) [PDF 2416KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo find out the cause and pathogenic factors of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a research institute in Beijing, 2018.MethodsThe clinical manifestations and the distribution of the patients were described with descriptive epidemiological method, and case control study was used to find out the suspected exposed meals and foods. Field hygiene survey was carried out. Samples from the cases and foods were collected for the PCR detection of norovirus, and partial gene sequencing of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region was performed for the positive strains.ResultsA total of 107 cases were found with the main symptoms of diarrhea (100%), abdominal pain (79%), vomiting (74%) and nausea (68%). The results of the epidemiological investigation demonstrated that the lunch of March 21 (provided by a food delivery company) was the suspected meal, and sauce elbow was the suspected food, which might be cross-contaminated during the preparation and without effective heating before provision. Seventeen strains of norovirus GⅡ were detected from 26 anal swabs and stool samples. Polymerase region gene sequencing showed that 8 strains shared 100% consistent nucleotide sequence, and NCBI blast showed that the 8 strains shared 99% homology with the GⅡ.17 variant strain 41 621 reported in Guangzhou.ConclusionThe sauce elbow contaminated by norovirus was the main infection source of this outbreak of foodborne illness. It is suggested that we should strengthen the supervision and management of food production practices in catering industry for the prevention of recurrence of similar incidents.
Analysis on incidence of malaria in Shanxi, 2014–2018
Ping Tie, Ting Wang, Changfu Yan, Jingying Wang, Yuhua Zheng, Yongfei Bai, Hongxia Yang, Jing Chen
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](214) [FullText HTML](76) [PDF 2381KB](0) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Shanxi province, evaluate the sensitivity of the malaria surveillance system, and provide a scientific basis for the development of scientific and effective strategies and measures to prevent the spread of malaria, prevent or reduce malaria incifence and death.MethodsThe incidence data of imported malaria in Shanxi from 2014 to 2018 were analyzed. The blood samples were collected from the cases for blood film test of plasmodium.ResultsA total of 75 cases of malaria were reported, all of them were imported cases. There were 53 cases of falciparum malaria, 13 cases of vivax malaria, 5 cases of ovale malaria, 2 cases of quartan malaria and 2 cases of mixed infection. Most cases were males (94.67%, 71/75), and the cases aged 21–50 years accounted for 85.33% (64/75). The cases were mainly workers and farmers (54.67%). Imported cases were reported all the year round, and there was no obvious incidence peak. The imported cases were mainly from Africa, accounting for 90.67%. The median intervals between onset and hospital visit and between hospital visit and diagnosis were 3 days and 2 days, respectively.ConclusionIn the past five years, malaria cases reported in Shanxi were all imported ones. Strengthening malaria surveillance in returnees from Africa and Southeast Asia, and timely detection and treatment of imported cases are critical for the implementation of malaria elimination in Shanxi.
Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in December 2019
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Yajing Song, Jiaojiao Jia
Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.003
[Abstract](180) [FullText HTML](64) [PDF 2199KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
In December 2019, a total of 64 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 82 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were measles (49), dengue fever (26), chikungunya fever (8), poliomyelitis (8) and cerebrospinal meningitis (8). The top four infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (66.0%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.4%), Lassa fever (20.8%) and plague (16.0%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were measles, malaria, dengue fever, cholera and Ebola virus disease. The prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were Ebola virus disease, plague, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever and measles, the prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were dengue fever and Middle East respiratory syndrome, the prevalent infectious diseases in America was dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Europe was measles.
Analysis on deletion of reporting cards for viral hepatitis B in Tianjin, 2013–2018
Guoping Zhang, Zhaofei Wei, Haiyan He, Ying Zhao, Weishen Wu
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.015
[Abstract](299) [FullText HTML](111) [PDF 2102KB](2) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the reasons for the deletion of reporting cards for viral hepatitis B in Tianjin during 2013–2018, find out the existing problems and provide evidence for the standardized reporting of hepatitis B in the future.MethodsThe information about all hepatitis cases reported in Tianjin from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018 were collected from “Communicable Disease Information Reporting and Management System" for descriptive epidemiological analysis to understand the deletion rate of reporting cards for hepatitis B and the reasons and the deleted reasons’ distribution in different type hospitals, hepatitis B type classifications and institutions.ResultsThere were 17 983 reporting cards for hepatitis B, including 2 429 deleted reporting cards, in Tianjin during 2013–2018, the deletion rate was 13.51%. The repeated reporting was responsible for 47.06% in deleted reporting cards, followed by non-conformance with diagnostic criteria (30.34%), non-conformance with reporting standards (15.31%) and others (7.29%); The rates of repeated cards, non-conformance with reporting standard and non-conformance with the diagnostic criteria were significantly higher in unclassified hepatitis B cases than those in acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis B cases (P<0.05); The rates of non-conformance with reporting standards and other reasons in hospitals were significantly higher than those in three types of Centers for Disease Control related institutions.ConclusionThe main reasons for the deletion of reporting cards for hepatitis B in Tianjin mainly included repeated reporting, non-conformance with reporting standards and non-conformance with diagnostic criteria. However there were a few reporting cards with unspecific deletion reasons. It is necessary to further standardize hepatitis B diagnosis reporting and the deletion reason filling to improve the quality of surveillance.
Establishment and application of multilocus sequence typing for Vibrio metschnikovii
Zhenzhou Huang, Keyi Yu, Hang Dai, Hongyan Cai, Xiao Xu, Duochun Wang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.017
[Abstract](206) [FullText HTML](67) [PDF 3452KB](2) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo establish a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assay for Vibrio metschnikovii, evaluate the molecular typing effect of the MLST assay, and perform MLST analysis on the collected V. metschnikovii strains.MethodsSeven housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gapA, mreB, gyrB, purM, recA, ropA) sequences in 17 V. metschnikovii strains were amplified with PCR by using self-designed specific primers. The gene polymorphism, neutral evolution and gene recombination were evaluated by using software DnaSP 6.12.03 and software Split tree 4.0, and corresponding sequence types (ST) were obtained based on the sequence differences among 7 housekeeping genes. The minimum spanning tree and clustering map were constructed for different ST types by using software BioNumerics 7.1, and clonal complexes (CCs) were calculated by using software eBURST 3.0.ResultsThe selected 7 housekeeping genes were suitable for MLST with sufficient allele loci, sequence differences and high resolving power. The split tree clustering of 7 housekeeping genes was consistent with all of V. metschnikovii strains, and the neutrality tests showed that 7 housekeeping genes were less subject to genetic drift during evolution. MLST divided 17 V. metschnikovii strains into 14 STs, and most of them (64.70 %) formed a single ST respectively, of which ST 007 was probably a potential predominant clonal complex. There was a relatively long genetic distance between these strains, and may have specific geographical distribution in vertical transmission.ConclusionThe MLST assay established in this study has great capability in analyzing the population structure and evolution relationship of V. metschnikovii.
Epidemic of pulmonary tuberculosis in minority ethnic areas included in health poverty alleviation project in four provinces in western China from 2011 to 2018
Lijia Yang, Tao Li, Wei Chen
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.014
[Abstract](248) [FullText HTML](95) [PDF 2087KB](17) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo analyze epidemic of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in minority ethnic areas included in a health poverty alleviation project in Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Gansu provinces in western China, and provide evidence for targeted PTB control and prevention.MethodsThe incidence data of PTB in the minority ethnic areas in 4 western provinces from 2011 to 2018 were collected from Infectious Disease Reporting System for a descriptive analysis to identify key areas and populations of PTB control and prevention.ResultsThe overall incidence rate of PTB in the minority ethnic areas in 4 western provinces increased gradually from 114.41 per 100 000 in 2011 to 140.90 per 100 000 in 2018, an increase of 23.16%. The highest incidence rate was reported in the minority ethnic area in Qinghai. In 2008, the incidence rate of PTB was higher in men than in women (166.43 per 100 000 versus 118.19 per 100 000). The case number in age group 15–24 years was the highest (5 242 cases), accounting for 28.59%. The PTB incidence rates were 487.41 per 100 000 and 245.41 per 100 000, respectively, in 15–24 age group in minority ethnic areas in Qinghai and Sichuan and 451.96 per 100 000 and 314.26 per 100 000, respectively, in age group ≥65 years in minority ethnic areas in Qinghai and Gansu.ConclusionThe PTB epidemic was very serious in the minority ethnic areas in 4 provinces in western China. Close attention should be paid to the control and prevention of PTB in these areas. In minority ethnic areas in Sichuan, it is necessary to attach importance to PTB control and prevention in adolescents, while in the minority ethnic areas in Qinghai and Yunnan, PTB control and prevention in the elderly should be focused on. In minority ethnic areas in Qinghai, PTB control and prevention in both adolescents and the elderly need to be noticed.
Epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Ordos, Inner Mongolia, 2009–2018
Yifan Zhao, Le Xu, Yuyang Wang, He Lin
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.013
[Abstract](257) [FullText HTML](96) [PDF 2042KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the incidence trend and epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of scarlet fever.MethodsDescriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of scarlet fever in Ordos during 2009–2018.ResultsA total of 3 150 cases of scarlet fever were reported in Ordos during this period. The average annual morbidity rate was 16.50/100 000, and the morbidity rate was 1.58 times higher in boys than in girls. The incidence of scarlet fever had obvious seasonality, which peaked during May-July and October-January, respectively. The cases mainly occurred in age group 3–10 years, accounting for 94.16% of the total (2 966/3 150). The cases in children in child care settings (1 900 cases), students (889 cases) and children outside child care settings (336 cases) accounted for 60.32%, 28.22% and 10.67% of the total cases, respectively.ConclusionThe incidence of scarlet fever increased in Ordos during 2009–2018. The cases mainly occurred in late spring, early summer and winter. The incidence of scarlet fever was higher in boys than in girls.
Antibiotic resistance characteristics of 527 Escherichia coli isolates from broilers
Xia Chen, Xiaofei Zhao, Jie Che, Yunfei Zhang, Min Yuan, Xuemei Bai, Juan Li
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.011
[Abstract](262) [FullText HTML](93) [PDF 2155KB](4) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate and analyze the antibiotic resistance characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from broilers.MethodsThe pre slaughter broilers were selected from 2 large poultry farms in Hebei province in March, 2017. A total of 273 of cloacal swabs of the poultry from five different parts of the henhouses were collected. Selective agar was chosen for E. coli preliminary isolation, and VITEK?-2 Compact 60 was used for isolate identification and antibiotic susceptibility test. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing characteristics of the isolates were analyzed simultaneously.ResultsA total of 527 non-repetitive E. coli isolates were identified, in which 475(90.13%) isolates were ESBL-producing. The E. coli isolates showed the highest carbapenem-sensitivity (99.43%), including ertapenem, meropenem and imipenem, and the highest amoxicillin-resistance (99.24%), followed by tetracycline (94.88%), ciprofloxacin (78.94%), piperacillin (78.37%), aztreonam (77.80%), and levofloxacin (70.40%). All of the E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one group of antimicrobial agents, except for one isolate. Multidrug resistance was detected in the tested E. coli isolates (98.10%). All of the multidrug resistant E. coli isolates were ESBL producing. The most prevalent multidrug resistant isolates were those resistant to 6 groups of antimicrobial agents (35.86%, 189/527). A total of 58 multidrug resistance spectrums were obtained. The proportion of the strains with multidrug resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, aztreonam, aminoglycosides, flouroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was highest (15.40%) in antibiotic resistant E. coli isolates.ConclusionHigh prevalence of drug resistance and severe multidrug resistance were found in the tested E. coli isolates from broilers in Hebei. The multidrug resistance spectrums were complicated. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for E. coli of animal origin and continue the rational use of antibiotics.
Spread and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter of animal origin
Dejun Liu, Xiao Liu, Xing Li, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.010
[Abstract](287) [FullText HTML](101) [PDF 2161KB](5) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
Campylobacter spp. is an important foodborne zoonotic pathogen. In the past few years, the increased spread and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter resulted in highly concern from medical and veterinary fields. Europe, United States and China have all established the monitoring system of antibiotic resistance for Campylobacter from various origins. Meanwhile, amounts of studies have been carried out. Animal was one of the major sources of Campylobacter, so there is a potential risk for Campylobacter to infect humans via food chain. Herein, this paper summarizes the research progress of Campylobacter of animal origin for the better understanding of the spread and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter in Europe, United States and China.
Surveillance and analysis of etiology characteristics of Campylobacter infection in adult diarrhea patients in Shunyi district of Beijing, 2016–2018
Ying Li, Qiaoling Jia, Guilan Zhou, Hongmei Ma, Yuanyuan Wang, Shuang Zhang, Yindong Li, Maojun Zhang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.007
[Abstract](340) [FullText HTML](113) [PDF 5204KB](12) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the molecular type, antibiotic susceptibility and distribution characteristics of Campylobacter isolated from adult diarrhea patients in Shunyi district of Beijing, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of Campylobacter infection as well as related risk evaluation.MethodsStool samples were collected from the adult diarrhea patients in a surveillance project in Shunyi from 2016 to 2018. Campylobacter strains was isolated using filtration method and the species identification was carried out using Biochemical test and Real-time PCR. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used for molecular sub-typing. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed with agar dilution method.ResultsThe isolation rate of Campylobacter was 5.65% (17/301) in 2016, 10.51% (39/371) in 2017 and 7.75% (29/374) in 2018, respectively. A total of 87 strains of Campylobacter were isolated. Among them, 87.36% (76/87) were C. jejuni strains and 12.64% (11/87) were C. coli strains. All the C. jejuni isolates belonged to 55 STs and 11 C. coli isolates belonged to 9 STs. PFGE was performed for the isolates with same ST and the close isolation time in 6 clusters, and 5 PFGE patterns were observed. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 55.26% (42/76) of the C. jejuni isolates and 90.91% (10/11) of the C. coli isolates exhibited resistance to three or more types of antibiotics.ConclusionCampylobacter is an important pathogen causing diarrhea in adults in Shunyi of Beijing. The filtration method is an effective method for isolation of Campylobacter from stool samples. Multi-drug resistance in C. coli is serious in Campylobacter from patient stool sample in Shunyi, to which more attention should be paid in public health and clinical practices.
Culture, identification and related mechanism research of Proteus vulgaris KM-19
Qinmei Jia, Chuanlian Yang, Yanmei Huang
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.012
[Abstract](233) [FullText HTML](89) [PDF 3212KB](0) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo analyze the biological characteristics, drug resistance mechanism and genomic characteristics of a beta hemolytic Proteus vulgaris KM-19 strain isolated and identified from middle urinary culture deficient in migratory growth, and provide evidence for clinical rational use of antibiotics.MethodsThe strain was cultured and isolated by using conventional methods. Then, VITEK-2 Compact automatic microbiological analyzer was used for the strain identification and drug sensitivity test in vitro. The absence of flagella was observed by staining and semisolid dynamic test. The whole genome of the strain was sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. The sequence assembly, gene prediction and functional annotation were carried out with bioinformatics method, and gene clusters related to phenotypic mechanism and drug resistance mechanism of the strain were further explored.ResultsVITEK-2 Compact identified the strain as Proteus vulgaris. The whole genome sequencing results showed that 48 Contigs were obtained from genome assembly; the total length of the gene was 3 319 152 bp, and the average length was 904.89 bp, accounting for 85.50% of the total length of the genome; the genome had no repeat sequence and had 38% C+G content. This strain was most likely to be Proteus vulgaris, which also verified the accurate identification result of the VITEK-2 Compact. This Proteus vulgaris strain was resistant to the first and second generation of cephalosporin, ampicillin, furantoin, compound neostigmine and tigecycline, but is was sensitive to the other drugs. No flagellum structure was observed under oil microscope and semisolid dynamic test was negative. The comparison between the genome sequencing sequence and the VFDB database showed that the bacterial flagellar gene and related genes were not missing, but, in flagellar gene sequences, the Methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein Ⅲ/Ⅰ genes was found. Methyltransferase genes and hlyB genes were also found in the genome. In addition, the comparison between the genome sequence and the CARD database showed that there were OXY and CTX-M genes and active efflux pump genes.ConclusionThe main mechanism of no migrating growth of this strain might be the methylation of flagellar genes or related genes, which indicated that the bacteria wasunable to effectively express flagellin in vitro and lost the ability of migrating growth. The beta hemolytic phenotype might be due to the insertion of exogenous hemolysin gene (hlyB), which was expressed effectively the bacterial genome. The drug resistance in vitro was closely related to OXY and CTX-M genes and active efflux pump genes.
Epidemiologic characteristics and drug resistance of Campylobacter in Zhuzhou, Hunan, 2016–2018
Qizhi Long, Huayun Jia, Li He, Lan Wang, Shixiong Hu, Lidong Gao, Junhua Li
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.009
[Abstract](870) [FullText HTML](244) [PDF 3622KB](9) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiologic characteristics and drug resistance of Campylobacter in Zhuzhou of Hunan province.MethodsEpidemiologic investigation was conducted in diarrhea cases and children without diarrhea in Zhuzhou from July 2016 to June 2018, and their stool samples were collected. The stool samples were used for the isolation of Campylobacter. The isolated Campylobacter strains were tested for drug susceptibility.ResultsA total of 450 cases were surveyed. The detection rate of Campylobacter was 6.44% (29/450). The detection rate in children without diarrhea was 1.00% (1/100), and the detection rate in diarrhea cases was 8.00% (28/350). The clinical symptoms of Campylobacter infection were diarrhea, abdominal pain, mucus stool, and the stool microscopic examination results were mainly characterized by the detections of erythrocyte and leukocyte. The detection rate in age group 5– years was 19.44% (7/36). The infection cases were mainly students 17.65% (6/34). There was no significant difference in the detection rate between man and woman (χ2=1.354, P=0.245). The detection rate of Campylobacter was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter. In the 29 strains, 24 were Campylobacter jejuni and 5 were C. colon. In the 29 strains, 41.38% were multidrug resistant. The resistant rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracyvline were 96.15%, 88.46% and 76.92%, respectively.ConclusionCampylobacter has become one of the important pathogens causing diarrhea in Zhuzhou, and it showed serious drug resistance and multi-drug resistance, to which the monitoring and control measures should be strengthened.
Drug resistance of Campylobacter from livestock and poultry in Qingdao, Shandong, 2017–2018
Xiao Liu, Xing Li, Weishuai Zhai, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Dejun Liu
Corrected proof , DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2020.01.008
[Abstract](320) [FullText HTML](109) [PDF 2081KB](8) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate the spread and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in poultry and livestock in Qingdao, Shandong during 2017—2018.MethodsWe collected cloaca, anal, caecum and meat samples of poultry and livestock in poultry/pig farms, slaughter houses, and rural produce markets in Qingdao for Campylobacter isolation. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates were performed. RE-cmeABC and erm(B) genes were detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).ResultsIn this study, 730 samples of livestock and poultry were collected in Qingdao from 2017 to 2018. A total of 235 strains (34.66%) of Campylobacter were isolated and identified, including 131 (55.74%) strains of Campylobacter jejuni and 104 (44.26%) strains of C. coli. Among these isolates, 147 (29.40%, 147/500) were detected in chickens, 80 (47.06%, 80/170) in ducks, 8 (13.33%, 8/60) in pigs, respectively. The results of antibiotic susceptibility test showed that C. coli was more resistant to erythromycin (92.31%), ciprofloxacin (100.00%), clindamycin (87.50%), florfenicol (53.85%), kanamycin (96.15%), gentamicin (92.31%) and tetracycline (99.04%), and C. jejuni was more resistant to ciprofloxacin (98.47%), florfenicol (61.83%), kanamycin (70.99%) and tetracycline (100.00%). PCR results indicated that 12 strains (5.11%) were positive for erm (B) gene and 125 strains (53.19%) were positive for RE-cmeABC gene.ConclusionThis study suggests that it is necessary to further monitor antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter and related mechanism in livestock and poultry in Qingdao to provide theoretical basis for the control of the spread of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, January 2020
Fengbo Zhou, Dayan Wang, Jingxin Li, Zhe Wang, Yun Li, Wenxiao Tu, Nijuan Xiang, Guoqing Shi
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](260) [FullText HTML](807) [PDF 2781KB](101) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo assess the risks of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in January 2020.MethodsAn internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this conference through video terminal.ResultsGenerally speaking, it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies reported in January 2020 would be lower than that in December 2019 and those during the same periods of previous three years, which might mainly be predominated by the epidemics of seasonal influenza, varicella, infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning event. Dynamical risk assessment should be conducted according to the progress of investigations of etiology, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the 2019 novel coronavirus infections occurred recently in Wuhan. The peak of seasonal influenza might occur at the end of January. The incidences of infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning would still remain at high levels in January. In domestic vacation trips during the Spring Festival, travelers should pay attention to seasonal influenza, human infection with avian influenza virus, infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus, food poisoning and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning. While travelling abroad, Chinese travelers should pay attention to Ebola virus disease, cholera, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as food hygiene.ConclusionClose attention should be paid to the 2019 novel coronavirus infections occurred in Wuhan and seasonal influenza, general attention should be paid to infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus, non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning and the Spring Festival travelling related health problems.
Genetic diversity of lipooligosaccharide core biosynthesis gene clusters in Campylobacter jejuni
Jiaqi Wang, Yixin Gu, Guilan Zhou, Hao Liang, Jianzhong Zhang, Maojun Zhang
Corrected proof
[Abstract](474) [FullText HTML](159) [PDF 3137KB](10) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo analyze the DNA sequence characteristics of the biosynthesis gene clusters in the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) core region of Campylobacter jejuni, and obtain the specific sequence features of the LOS types.MethodsA total of 132 whole genome sequences of C. jejuni were selected for analyzing. OrthoMCL software was used to obtain the homology of LOS core region biosynthesis gene clusters and specific sequence of the different LOS type. PCR assay was established targeting the specific sequences of specific types of the gene clusters. According to the specific primers and the size of the amplified products, the main types of LOS were identified.ResultsAmong the 132 strains, the DNA sequences of biosynthesis gene clusters in LOS core regions of 105 strains belonged to 14 previously identified types, and those of 27 strains belonged to 10 novel types according to DNA homology, i.e. CDC1- 10. There were a large number of polyA/T, polyG/C, insertion and deletion mutations of nucleobase in the sequences of the LOS core region biosynthesis gene clusters. Some mutations could lead to the amino acid mutations of the synthetase or transferase for the LOSs, affecting the antigenicity. The type A, B, C, and CDC8 of LOS specific DNA sequences of 50 C. jejuni strains were confirmed using the PCR assays developed in this study.ConclusionThe 10 novel LOS types are helpful for the accurate identification of C. jejuni and explaining the antigenic diversity of LOS. The DNA sequence of LOS core biosynthesis gene clusters of C. jejuni is highly variable, and there are a large number of poly-structures and DNA sequence mutations, which is the potential cause of LOS antigenic diversity. The PCR assay for LOS typing can be used to rapidly screen five specific LOS types, but more strains are still needed for the validation.
Infection status of Campylobacter and its etiologic characteristics in diarrhea patients in Nanshan district, Shenzhen
Min Liu, Changyan Ju, Yanping Ma, Yongxiang Duan, Muhua Yu, Maojun Zhang, Guoqing Wang
Corrected proof
[Abstract](930) [FullText HTML](295) [PDF 2689KB](9) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the infection status of Campylobacter and its etiologic characteristics in diarrheal patients in autumn in Nanshan district of Shenzhen.MethodsThe stool samples were collected from local diarrheal patients during September-November in 2018. Campylobacter was isolated with new filtration method and the species identification was performed by real time PCR. Molecular sub-typing was carried out by using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 antibiotics to the isolates were obtained with agar dilution method. The genetic cluster analysis was performed by using minimum spanning tree analysis based on the sequence typing (ST) of the isolates.ResultsA total of 150 stool samples were collected from 150 diarrheal patients, including 74 men and 76 women. The age of the patients ranged from 1 year to 86 years. Eighteen Campylobacter strains were isolated from 150 stool samples. Among the 18 isolates, 14 (77.78%) were C. jejuni positive and 4 (22.22%) were C. coli positive. Fourteen C. jejuni isolates could be classified into 11 PFGE patterns and 8 STs, and ST-9763, a novel ST identified in this study, was the predominant STS (35.71%, 5/14). All of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline and completely sensitive to erythromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin and clindamycin. The minimum spanning tree analysis for 14 C. jejuni strains isolated in Nanshan showed no significant clustering characteristics, the strains were distributed in groups from different sources.ConclusionThe new filtration isolation method increased the isolation rate of Campylobacter in diarrheal patients. C. jejuni was the major species causing Campylobacter infection. The isolates in this study showed high drug resistances to tetracycline and quinolones. No significant genetic cluster was found in C. jejuni strains isolated in Nanshan district.
2019年12月中國甲乙丙類傳染病疫情動態簡介National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in December 2019
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](213) [FullText HTML](94) [PDF 422KB](9) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
$v.abstractInfoEn
2019年12月中國甲乙丙類傳染病疫情動態概要
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](445) [FullText HTML](1117) [PDF 386KB](10) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
$v.abstractInfoEn
2019年全球中東呼吸綜合征疫情概況
Zhenyu GONG, Xunliang GONG
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](525) [FullText HTML](159) [PDF 1958KB](10) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
$v.abstractInfoEn
Analysis on duplicated reporting of hepatitis B in Suzhou, 2014–2018
Yang Yang, Cheng Liu, Liling Chen, Lianmei Jin, Huilai Ma, Huihui Liu
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](293) [FullText HTML](90) [PDF 2364KB](5) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the repeated reporting of hepatitis B in Suzhou from 2014 to 2018, provide data to support future research.MethodsThe data of hepatitis B cases in Suzhou from 2014 to 2018 were collected through National Notifiable Disease Reporting System, and repeated cases were identified to calculate the repetition rate.ResultsA total of 12 823 cases of hepatitis B were reported, in which 731 cases were duplicately reported, with a repetition rate of 5.70%. The repetition rate was 4.32% during 2014–2018, higher than annual repetition rate (1.44%). The area specific duplicated reporting constituent ratios ranged from 0.55% to 32.42%, and the repetition rates ranged from 1.46% to 11.2%. The rate of duplicated reporting in different age groups ranged from 3.59% to 6.40% (χ2=21.518, P=0.001), and was higher in high age groups than in low age group. Duplicated reporting occurred in medical institutions at provincial, prefectural, county and township levels, with the repetition rates ranging from 3.23% to 7.69% (χ2=62.272, P<0.001).ConclusionDuplicated reporting of hepatitis B existed in Suzhou, which might be explained by the limitation of National Notifiable Disease Reporting System and the loss, change and error in case’s basic information. Kunshan, Gusu and non-local institutions had greater impacts on duplicated reporting of hepatitis B in Suzhou, it is necessary to strengthen the check of the duplicated reporting in these areas. The duplicated reporting rate was higher in medical institutions at provincial and county levels than medical institutions at prefectural and township levels.
Analysis on an epidemic of mixed infection of norovirus G and G
Cairong Chen, Huifen Zhang, Hongbiao Liang
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](342) [FullText HTML](129) [PDF 2303KB](6) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate an epidemic of norovirus infection, identify the pathogen and transmission factors, and provide evidence for the response of similar epidemic.MethodsThe cases were searched, and case survey and field hygiene survey conducted. The risk factors were analyzed through case-control study. The stool samples were collected from the cases for norovirus nucleic acid detection with real time PCR.ResultsA total of 16 confirmed cases were found, the attack rate was 5.82% (16/275). The cases were all students, no teacher and school staff were affected. No severe case and death occurred. Acute illness was observed in the cases, the clinical manifestations included vomiting (100.0%), nausea (100.0%), abdominal pain (62.5%) and fever (25.0%); Thirteen norovirus positive samples were detected in 16 stool samples, i.e. 2 norovirus GⅠ and GⅡ mixed positive samples, 2 norovirus GⅠ positive samples, 9 norovirus GⅡ positive samples. Off-campus boarding (OR=154, 95% CI: 19.82–1 196.45) and onlooking at vomiting sites were risk factors for the infection (OR=143, 95% CI: 18.31–1 116.71).ConclusionThe epidemic was a norovirus caused infection cluster, which might be caused by aerosol transmission through the inhalation of vomit of the index case.
Etiological analysis of 1 case of a patient with Listeria monocytogenes infection
Huiru Feng, Jing Shi, Qian Chen, Xiuxia Wei, Hong Yu, Tao Yan, Zhaoe Wang, Meng Qin, Zhimin Zhang, Xiaogen Dong
Corrected proof
[Abstract](1667) [FullText HTML](467) [PDF 3273KB](9) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectivesTo investigate the etiology and traceability of an infection case caused by Listeria monocytogenes.MethodsOn the basis of Field epidemiological investigation, samples of patient, foods, kitchen environmental appliances were collected for strain isolation and identification. Six pairs of virulence genes (prfA, plcB, hly, actA, iap, inlA) of positive strains were tested. The positive strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST) techniques. The homologous analysis was finally performed on the isolated strain.ResultsSix strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one from the case, two from the kitchen environmental kit, and three from the food of patient's family. In addition to the deletion of the virulence gene of the strain plcB detected by the two samples of the refrigerator inner wall and canned sweet corn, the other five virulence and all the virulence genes of other strains were all positive.. The isolated strains were all ST121 type, and the PFGE band type was 100% consistent.ConclusionThe reason for the prevalence of this patient was due to poor hygiene in the home kitchen and contamination of both food and the environment.
Detection and management of an imported case of Chikungunya fever in Henan
Xingle Li, Xiangdong Jin, Jianmin Ma, Dongxiao Li, Ruijuan Fu, Haifeng Wang, haimei Li, Jia Su, Xueyong Huang, Wanshen Guo
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](341) [FullText HTML](99) [PDF 3270KB](1) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of an imported Chikungunya fever case occurred in Huixian county of Henan province in August 2019 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of the further spread.MethodsThe serum samples of the case, person with co-exposure and contacts as well as mosquito samples were detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR and the virus isolation was conducted, E1 gene of the isolate was sequenced and analyzed by Clustal X and MEGA 7.0. Epidemiological investigation was conducted, and prevention and control measures were taken according to related technical guidelines.ResultsThe serum sample of the case was positive for nucleic acid of Chikungunya virus. The virus isolate (GenBank No. MN432879) belonged to ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus. In E1 section, the isolate shared 100% nucleotide/amino acid homology of MN432879 with an imported strain (GenBank No. MG912993) in Zhejiang in 2017, and shared 99.4% nucleotide homology and 99.8% amino acid homology with an imported strain (GenBank No. MG925665) isolated in Henan. There was one case with co-exposure and three contacts, all of them showed no clinical manifestations of Chikungunya fever. The breteau index of the epidemic point declined from 9.5 in the first surveillance to 3.2 in the third surveillance and remained at a low level. Mosquito samples were negative for nucleic acid of Chikungunya virus.ConclusionThe imported Chikungunya fever case in Huixian county of Henan was caused by ECSA genotype Chikungunya virus, no further spread occurred in this area.
Establishment of a reverse transcription recombinase-mediated amplification assay for rapid detection of Tahyna virus
Fan Li, Xiaofang Guo, Qikai Yin, Xinxin Shen, Shihong Fu, Songtao Xu, Wenwen Lei, Hongning Zhou, Xuejun Ma, Huanyu Wang
Accepted Manuscript
[Abstract](279) [FullText HTML](70) [PDF 3822KB](3) [Peer reviewing opinions] Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo establish a reverse transcription recombinase-mediated nucleic acid amplification (RAA) assay for the rapid detection of Tahyna virus nucleic acid.MethodsPrimers and probes were designed in the conserved region of S segment of Tahyna virus. The sensitivity of the new RAA assay was evaluated by constructing plasmids containing target gene fragments and cultured virus. The specificity of the assay were tested by seven viruses of flavivirus, alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus and Seadornavirus. Additionally, 30 batches of mosquito samples were used to evaluate the performance of the RT-RAA assay.ResultsThe limit detection of the assay was 100 copies per reaction for the constructed plasmid standard and 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) per reaction of TAHV titers. There was no cross-reaction with other arboviruses.ConclusionA highly sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use assay was established for the rapid detection of Tahyna virus.
cover
2019, 34(12).
[Abstract](328) [PDF 10737KB](5) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
contents
2019, 34(12): 1-3.
[Abstract](317) [FullText HTML](133) [PDF 652KB](3) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in November 2019

2019, 34(12): 1043-1043. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.001
[Abstract](529) [FullText HTML](208) [PDF 411KB](12) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
Summary of National Data of Class A, B and C Communicable Diseases in China, November 2019

2019, 34(12): 1044-1044. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.002
[Abstract](510) [FullText HTML](235) [PDF 387KB](7) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
Summary of global surveillance data of infectious diseases in November 2019
Hui Han, Bo Wu, Yajing Song, Jiaojiao Jia
2019, 34(12): 1045-1047. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.003
[Abstract](591) [FullText HTML](472) [PDF 2192KB](9) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
In November 2019, a total of 61 infectious diseases were reported globally, affecting 70 countries and regions. Except for influenza, the top five infectious diseases affecting greatest number of countries and regions were dengue fever (33), measles (26), malaria (18), Chikungunya fever (9) and Poliomyelitis (7).The top five infectious diseases with highest case fatality rates were Ebola virus disease (66.5%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (34.3%), plague (21.1%), Lassa fever (20.9%) and West Nile fever (10.8%). The top five infectious diseases with greatest number of deaths were measles, dengue fever, cholera, malaria and Ebola virus disease. The prevalent infectious diseases in Africa were Ebola virus disease, plague, cholera, yellow fever, Lassa fever and Rift Valley fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Asia were dengue fever and Middle East respiratory syndrome, the prevalent infectious diseases in America was dengue fever, the prevalent infectious diseases in Europe were West Nile fever and measles.
Risk assessment of public health emergencies concerned in the mainland of China, December 2019
Ke Jin, Jiandong Li, Jing Yang, Miao Jin, Zhe Wang, Chao Li, Wenxiao Tu, Nijuan Xiang, Qun Li
2019, 34(12): 1048-1051. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.004
[Abstract](506) [FullText HTML](207) [PDF 2702KB](9) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in December 2019.MethodsAn internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this conference through video terminal.ResultsIt is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies would be at a high level in December, but it would be lower compared with November. If the increase of influenza outbreaks accelerate abnormally, this prediction might be affected. Most events reported in December might be the outbreaks of seasonal influenza, varicella, mumps, and norovirus infection. The risk of human plague in Inner Mongolia would be obviously lower because of lower air temperature and the progress in plague prevention and control. The seasonal increase of influenza incidence would occur and the epidemics of infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus would continue to increase. Compared with November, the incidence of non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning would rise due to increased unsafe winter heating in December. The incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) would be at a seasonal high level, but it would be lower compared with the same period in 2018.ConclusionClose attention should be paid to plague and seasonal influenza, and general attention should be paid to norovirus caused infectious diarrhea, HFRS and non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning.
Introduction
2019, 34(12): 1052-1052.
[Abstract](409) [FullText HTML](192) [PDF 1733KB](6) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
Diagnosis performance of brucellosis in China, 2013–2018
Shu Li, Qiulan Chen, Wenwu Yin, Yu Li, Di Mu, Zhongjie Li
2019, 34(12): 1053-1057. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.005
[Abstract](1458) [FullText HTML](507) [PDF 2144KB](41) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the diagnosis performance of brucellosis in China from 2013 to 2018, and provide reference for the improvement of the diagnosis quality of brucellosis.MethodsThe incidence data of brucellosis in China from 2013 to 2018 were collected from the infectious disease information management system of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC). The diagnosis performance of brucellosis was described by analyzing the intervals between onset and diagnosis of brucellosis and the laboratory confirmation rates in different medical institutions and in northern and southern China.ResultsFrom 2013 to 2018, a total of 282 264 brucellosis cases were reported nationwide. Most cases were reported in northern China, accounting for 95.09% of the total. The cases reported by hospitals, CDCs and primary medical units accounted for 50.33%, 39.11% and 7.73% respectively. The proportion of the cases reported by hospitals increased gradually from 35.94% in 2013 to 62.48% in 2018. The median onset-diagnosis interval was 14 d, and 6.95% of the reported cases were diagnosed beyond acute phase (3 months). The median onset-diagnosis interval was shorter in southern China (11 d) than in northern China (14 d), and in hospitals and primary medical units (9 d, 11 d) than in CDCs and other medical units (20 d, 25 d). The overall laboratory confirmation rate was 91.61% (92.00% in northern China and 84.37% in southern China). In northern China, the laboratory confirmation rate was only 88.76% in hospitals and 87.51% in primary medical units. The overall rate of non-local hospital visits was 47.99% (46.95% in northern China and 68.07% in southern China).ConclusionIn northern China, the brucellosis epidemic was serious from 2013 to 2018, and the laboratory diagnostic capacity was still inadequate, resulting in some delays in diagnosis. It is suggested to strengthen the building of laboratory diagnostic capacity of the medical institutions in northern China and improve the accessibility of diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis.
Spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, 2009–2018
Hanwei Liang, Na Ta, Jingchuan Mi, Ruiping Yu, Wei Guo, Wenqiang Zhang
2019, 34(12): 1058-1063. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.006
[Abstract](1072) [FullText HTML](567) [PDF 3841KB](26) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiologic characteristics and spatial distribution of human brucellosis (hereinafter referred to as brucellosis) in Inner Mongolia from 2009 to 2018, and provide evidence for the development of the strategies and measures for brucellosis prevention and control and the adjustment of prevention and control resources.MethodsThe incidence data of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia during 2009–2018 were obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS). Descriptive epidemiology method was used to analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of brucellosis, and software ArcGIS was used to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of brucellosis. The spatial and temporal distribution map of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia was generated to analyze the global and local spatial correlation.ResultsFrom 2009 to 2018, a total of 119 249 new cases of brucellosis were reported in Inner Mongolia, and brucellosis occurred in all 103 counties of 12 cities (league). The cases were mainly young adults, males and farmers or herdsmen. From the perspective of spatial distribution: the global spatial autocorrelation analysis showed clustering distribution from 2009 to 2013 and from 2016 to 2018, and there were hot spots in local spatial autocorrelation analysis. The high incidence areas of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia were mainly in the central and eastern areas in the past decade. The areas with high incidence of brucellosis moved from the middle-east to the west and from the north to the south.ConclusionIt is necessary to further strengthen the prevention and control of brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, focusing on health education and behavior intervention in high-risk groups and targeted measures in areas with serious disease burden.
Performance of human brucellosis control in Xilingol league, Inner Mongolia, 2010–2018
Yanwei Bi, Siyuan Zhang, Rile Ge
2019, 34(12): 1064-1067. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.007
[Abstract](1182) [FullText HTML](355) [PDF 3250KB](9) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectivesTo evaluate the performance of human brucellosis prevention and control in Xilingol league of Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2018 and provide evidence for the local brucellosis prevention and control in the future.MethodsThe incidence data of human brucellosis in Xilingol from 2010 to 2018 were collected to analyze the incidence level. The infection status and morbidity of brucellosis in population at high risk were evaluated by using blood test positive rate and brucellosis detection rate, the effects of occupational training and health education were evaluated respectively by using the professional training rate in medical staff and the awareness rate of brucellosis related knowledge in population at high risk, and the effects of patient treatment and management were evaluated by using standardized treatment rate and cure rate.ResultsDuring 2010–2018, a total of 198 915 blood samples were tested in population at high risk, in which 8 434 were positive (4.24%), and 2 319 new brucellosis cases were detected (1.17%). There were significant differences in annual proportion of new cases detected in active investigation in cases reported through network (χ2=574.878, P<0.001). The positive rate, case detection rate of active investigation and the incidence rate reported through network in population at high risk showed decline trends (χ2=1 520.332, 2 654.121, and 4 665.313, P<0.001). The awareness rate of brucellosis in population at high risk increased from 69.04% to 90.83%. The annual qualified rates of medical staff engaged in brucellosis prevention and control in professional training were all higher than 98%. During 2010–2013, the cure rate of patients was low, the lowest was 52.78%, and the rate of follow up loss was higher than 30%. During 2014–2018, the cure rate was over 75%, and the rate of follow up loss dropped to about 10%.ConclusionThe prevention and control of brucellosis has made achievement in Xilingol, however, it remains challengeable. It is still necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of brucellosis by fully implementation of all the measures.
Etiological characteristics of Brucella strains isolated in Shanxi, 1950–2018
Yongfei Bai, Ping Tie, Yuhua Zheng, Changfu Yan, Ting Wang, Jingying Wang, Xuemin Li, Hongxia Yang, Buyun Cui
2019, 34(12): 1068-1071. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.008
[Abstract](1165) [FullText HTML](404) [PDF 3763KB](28) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the etiological characteristics of brucellosis in Shanxi province from 1950 to 2018 and provide evidence for the further analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of brucellosis.MethodsThe analysis was conducted on the information of the Brucella strains isolated in different areas and from different host samples in Shanxi province during 1950–1981, 1982–1991 and 1992–2018.ResultsFrom 1950 to 2018, a total of 417 Brucella strains, i.e. 331 B. melitensis strains, 1 B. abortus strain, 1 B. suis strain, 1 atypical Brucella strain and 83 unspecific Brucella strains, were isolated from different samples of 5 hosts in Shanxi.ConclusionShanxi Province is a mixed spread area of B. melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis. From 1950 to 1981 and from 1982 to 1991, the predominant species of Brucella were B. melitensis 1 and B. melitensis 2, and the predominant species of Brucella was B. melitensis 3 during 1992–2018. It was found that some strains of B. melitensis were isolated from deer rather than sheep and goats, suggesting the possible host shifting of B. melitensis.
Epidemiological analysis of brucellosis in Yunnan, 2006–2018
Xiangdong Yang, Xue Yang, Binbin Yu, Qing Zhang, Qiuju Yang
2019, 34(12): 1072-1075. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.009
[Abstract](320) [FullText HTML](118) [PDF 3127KB](8) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the prevalence of brucellosis in Yunnan province in recent years and assess risk factors causing brucellosis, provide a scientific basis for developing effective prevention strategies.MethodsThe epidemiological data of brucellosis in Yunnan were collected from 2006 to 2018 through China Disease Prevention and Control System, the database was set up and the geographical distribution maps were drawn with software ArcGIS 10.2.ResultsBrucellosis was detected in 1 county in 2006 and in 48 counties in 2018 in Yunnan and had been reported in 77 counties accumulatively, accounting for 59.69%(77/129)of total counties. Brucellosis occurred in every year during this period and a total of 1 239 brucellosis cases reported without death. The prefectures (municipality) with high incidence rate were Honghe, Kunming and Qujing, where 67.23% of the cases were reported. Although the disease occurred all the year round, 59.48% of cases were reported in summer and autumn. Cases aged 20–69 years accounted for 88.22%, most cases was farmers (78.53%), and more men (71.99%) were infected compared with women (28.01%).ConclusionThe prevalence of brucellosis increased rapidly in Yunnan, resulting in more infected areas and cases. The important prevention and control measures include health education, stff training, improvement of surveillance and detection, enhanced cooperation between different departments to find and response epidemic as early as possible, standardized case management and reducing chronic rate caused by the disease.
Evaluation on quality of internet based reporting of brucellosis in China, 2005–2017
Cuihong Zhang, Shuaibing Dong, Hai Jiang, Mengguang Fan, Yuexi Li, Xiang Ren, Mengjie Geng, Zhongjie Li, Liping Wang
2019, 34(12): 1076-1081. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.010
[Abstract](1128) [FullText HTML](369) [PDF 3870KB](29) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo evaluate the quality of internet based reporting of brucellosis in China from 2005 to 2017, find out the main problems and propose measures for the improvement of the reporting quality in the future.MethodsFrom China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, the information about all the brucellosis case reporting cards from 2005 to 2017 were collected according to the final review date. The timeliness and accuracy of the reporting, and area, year and province specific differences in reporting quality were analyzed.ResultsA total of 499 421 case cards of brucellosis were reported during this period with an average increase rate of 6.14%. The overall timely reporting rate was 95.97%, the timely reporting rate increased gradually from 61.90% in 2005 to 99.47% in 2017. The median interval between diagnosis and reporting was 0.08 d (1.92 h). The overall timely verifying rate was 99.41%, the timely verifying rate increased gradually from 95.25% in 2005 to 99.70% in 2017. The overall accuracy rate of the reporting cards was 99.86%, the accuracy rate increased with year and reached 100.00% during 2015–2017. Most case reporting cards were from northern China (98.22%), but the annual case reporting cards from southern China showed an increasing trend. There was some delay in the timely case reporting in northern China, and the timely verifying rate in southern China was slightly lower. Untimely and inaccurate reporting of brucellosis cases mainly occurred in provinces with high-incidences of brucellosis, such as Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, and Hebei.ConclusionDuring 2005–2017, the quality of internet based reporting of brucellosis in China were improved obviously, resulting in better reflection of the epidemic trend of brucellosis in China, however, the problems of untimely and inaccurate reporting still existed, especially in northern China. It is necessary to conduct serial training on brucellosis reporting standards, strengthen the supervision of the reporting quality and optimize the reporting items in surveillance system to further improve the quality of the internet based brucellosis reporting in China.
Prediction of rabies cases in China by using autoregressive moving average model
Yanrong Li, Liling Zhu, Wuyang Zhu, Xiaoyan Tao
2019, 34(12): 1082-1088. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.011
[Abstract](2451) [FullText HTML](840) [PDF 3616KB](40) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo predict the monthly incidence of rabies in the mainland of China by using autoregressive moving average model (ARIMA), and provide reference for the prevention and control of rabies in China.MethodsUsing SPSS 19.0 software, a time series model was established by using the monthly incidence data of rabies in China from January 2007 to December 2016, and the optimal model was validated by the monthly incidence data of rabies from January to December 2017. The optimal model was used to predict the incidence trend and case number of rabies in 2018.ResultsThe optimal model was ARIMA(0,1,1)(2,1,0)12, with a stationary R2=0.539, RMSE=17.653, Ljung-Box Q=8.932, P=0.881. In predicting the data for January-December 2017, the relative error of prediction was 1.55%. A total of 516 rabies cases occurred actually in 2017. It was predicted that the case number of rabies in China would drop to 398 in 2018.ConclusionThe ARIMA(0,1,1)(2,1,0)12 model can well fit the long-term trend and seasonal trend of rabies incidence, and the results of retrograde fitting and short-term prediction are ideal.
Investigation of enterovirus spectrum in false influenza-like illness cases in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 2017–2018
Baochang Sun, Shushu Lu, Maomao Wu, Dong Chen
2019, 34(12): 1096-1099. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.013
[Abstract](390) [FullText HTML](140) [PDF 2067KB](9) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate the enterovirus (EV) spectrum and its main virus types in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases with negative influenza virus detection results, and provide basic scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of EV infection.MethodsThe clinical samples of ILI cases were collected in Wenzhou of Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2018 for the detections of influenza A and B viruses with real-time PCR(polymerase chain reaction). Then EV detection was performed for influenza negative cases. VP1 region sequence of EV was amplified by using reverse transcription PCR. The amplified products were subjected to gene sequencing and genotyping. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the results.ResultsAmong 2 298 ILI cases detected, 488 (21.23%) were influenza virus positive, and 1 810 (78.76%) were influenza virus negative, in which 254 (14.03%) were EV positive. EV infections occur all the year round, but the incidence peak was during April-July with the cases accounting for 70.47%. In 254 EV positive cases, by gene sequencing, the genotypes of 135 cases were detected, including 13 EV subtypes of EV-A, EV-B and EV-C, in which Cox A6, Cox A2 and Cox A10 accounted for 24.44%, 22.22% and 13.33%, respectively. There were significant year, month, gender and age specific differences in EV positive rate (χ2=9.399, 329.380, 4.311, 29.246, all P<0.05).ConclusionEnterovirus was one of the main pathogens in false influenza-like infection cases, and enterovirus spectrum was complex. It is necessary to strengthen the diagnosis and surveillance in low age group.
Etiological analysis of rotavirus infection in infants in Urumqi
Shabiremu·Tuohetamu, Senlu Wang, Mahemuti
2019, 34(12): 1100-1103. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.014
[Abstract](794) [FullText HTML](284) [PDF 2316KB](8) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the infection status of rotavirus in children under 5 years old in Urumqi from 2016 to 2017, analyze its etiological characteristics and provide evidence for the prevention and control of rotavirus infection.MethodsThe epidemiological data and stool samples were collected from 597 infants hospitalized in Urumuqi Children's Hospital due to diarrhea from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to detect rotavirus antigen, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for rotavirus nucleic acid detection and genotyping. The test results and epidemiological data were analyzed.ResultsThe positive rate of group A rotavirus antigen was 32.5% (194/597). In genotyping of the rotavirus strains isolated from positive cases, genotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 were detected, G9 was predominant (11.6%, 69/597), and genotype P[4], P[6] and P[8] were detected, and the detection rate of P[8] was highest (22.7%, 44/194). In the combinations of G and P genotypes, G3P[8] (31.4%), G9P[8] (25.3%), G2P[4] (18.0%) and G1P[8](8.8%) were detected more frequently. The positive rate of rotavirus was highest in age group 13–18 months (40.0%) and lowest in age group 0–6 months (23.4%). The infection rate of rotavirus varied with age group, the differences were significant(χ2=13.698, P=0.033). The positive rate of rotavirus was 35.8% in 2016 (108/302) and 29.2% in 2017 (86/295) (χ2=2.971, P=0.085). The rotavirus positive rate in urban children was 32.8% (173/527), higher than that in rural children (30.0%, 21/70) (χ2=0.225, P=0.635).ConclusionInfants and young children in Urumqi are generally susceptible to rotavirus, and RV strains had diverse genotypes, mainly G3P[8] type. Urban children aged 1–2 years are the key population for vaccination in the prevention and control of rotavirus infection.
Retrospective analysis on 51 epidemics of norovirus infection in Nanning, Guangxi
Hao Nong, Haohui Liu, Cheng Yang, Xinjie Zhan, Liujiang Yin, Jianqiu Qin
2019, 34(12): 1104-1108. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.015
[Abstract](604) [FullText HTML](444) [PDF 2369KB](3) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of norovirus infection in Nanning and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of norovirus infection.MethodsThe test results of norovirus infection epidemics, case information and 3 epidemic investigation reports in Nanning from January 2015 to January 2019 were collected for statistical analysis.ResultsA total of 51 norovirus epidemics were laboratory confirmed. The epidemics occurred in 2016 and 2017 accounted for 62.75%, and the epidemic caused by norovirus GⅡ accounted for 90.20%, and the epidemics caused by norovirus GⅠ and GⅡ accounted for 9.80%. The incidence was high during September-January. Two incidence peaks with different intensities were found. The epidemics mainly occurred in Qingxiu, Binyang, Jiangnan and Xingning districts, where the reported epidemics accounted for 68.63%. Twenty five epidemics occurred in child care settings, accounting for 49.02%. There was no significant difference in positive rate between males and females. The clinical symptoms were mainly vomiting and diarrhea. In 481 case samples, 289 samples of asymptomatic persons and 36 water samples, the positive rates of norovirus were 60.50%, 8.30%, and 16.67%, respectively. The transmission routes of 48 epidemics were unknown, accounting for 94.12%.ConclusionNorovirus GⅡ was the major pathogen causing norovirus epidemics in Nanning. Autumn and winter were the seasons with high incidences, showing the incidence peaks synchronized with the epidemics occurred both at home and abroad. It is necessary to pay attention to the prevention and control of norovirus infection in areas or settings with high-incidences, strengthen health education, improve the power of epidemic response for the rapid identification of infection source of infection and blocking the transmission route and conduct norovirus gene sequencing to identify epidemic genotypes and detect variants or recombinant strains in time.
Epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xinjiang, 2012–2018
Shawulaxi·Rejiafu, Mahemutijiang·Kuerban, Na Xie, Kaisaier·Wusiman, Lu Sun
2019, 34(12): 1109-1112. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.016
[Abstract](798) [FullText HTML](351) [PDF 2749KB](5) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xinjiang from 2012 to 2018.MethodsDescriptive epidemiologic method was used to analyze the incidence data of measles collected from Chinese Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System.ResultsA total of 9 817 measles cases, including 24 deaths, were reported in Xinjiang from 2012 to 2018. The incidence of measles was in increase since 2012 and peaked in 2016. The reported incidence was 12.09/100 000. The incidence of measles declined in 2017 and 2018, and the incidence rate was lowest in 2018 (0.36/100 000). The measles cases were mainly distributed in Kashgar, Hetian, Kezhou, Aksu, Urumqi and Yili in Xinjiang, accounting for 71.48% of the total cases. The annual incidence peak of measles was during March-June. In 2016, the measles incidence began to increase in November and December, and peaked in January and February in 2017. From 2012 to 2018,The cases proportions in age groups 8 months and 8–17 months decreased, the case proportions in age groups 18–47 months and 15–39 years showed no significant change, and the case proportions in age groups 4–14 years and ≥40 years increased year by year. In children aged 8–23 months, 20.94% had one dose of measles immunization, 1.40% had two doses of measles immunization. In children aged 2–6 years, 14.73% had one dose of measles immunization, 21.30% had two doses of measles immunization, and the proportions of the cases receiving no measles immunization and with unknown immunization status were 51.93% and 25.86% respectively; From 2012 to 2018, 2 595 measles cases (26.43%) had complications.Conclusion Measles incidence declined year by year from 2016 to 2018 in Xinjiang, but areas or populations at high risk still existed. We should improve routine immunization coverage rate and timely immunization rate (>95%) for measles, vaccination certificate checking for school and kindergarten entrances and strengthen measles epidemiology and laboratory testing to achieve the goal of eliminating measles.
Influencing factors for delay in case-finding of active pulmonary tuberculosis in students in Sichuan, 2016–2018
Ni Yang, Zhengyuan Rao, Lan Xia, Yang Song
2019, 34(12): 1113-1116. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.017
[Abstract](715) [FullText HTML](233) [PDF 2226KB](3) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the delay of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) case-finding in students and related influencing factors in Sichuan province, and provide evidence for the development of intervention strategies.MethodsThe data of 2 666 untreated TB cases in students were randomized collected from National Tuberculosis Management Information System, and the information about the delays in the finding of these cases were analyzed, and χ2 test and multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the risk factors associated with the casefinding delay.ResultsThe median of delay in the finding of 2 666 pulmonary TB cases in students in Sichuan was 24 d from 2016 to 2018, the proportion of the pulmonary TB cases reported without delay (0–30 d) was 57.1%, the pulmonary TB cases reported with delay of 1–2 months (31–60 d) and those reported with delay of ≥2 months (>60 d) accounted for 23.3% and 19.6% respectively. Age <16 and ≥19 years, minority ethnic group, non-local residence, case source (tracing), first medical seeking in health facilities at county level, positive results of Mycobacterium tuberculosis test were the risk factors for over 2 month case finding delay.ConclusionThe case-finding delay of pulmonary TB in students was common in Sichuan. It is necessary for schools and health facilities to take effective and comprehensive intervention measures targeting risk factors to reduce the delay in pulmonary TB case finding in students.
Molecular characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of clinical strains of Streptococcus agalactiae
Zheng Nan, Fang Zhou, Donghui Yan, Jianrong Su, Yanyan Zhou
2019, 34(12): 1117-1121. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.018
[Abstract](554) [FullText HTML](219) [PDF 2835KB](11) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo understand the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility, virulence gene carriage and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) results of clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a class Ⅲ (A) hospital in Beijing.MethodsS. agalactiae strains were isolated from the hospitalized patients in 2018. The serotyping, MLST and virulence gene detection were conducted by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The susceptibility test of S. agalactiae strains to 7 antibiotics was conducted with VITEK 2 system.ResultsA total of 31 strains of S. agalactiae were isolated in the hospital in 2018. In the sequence types (STs), ST10 (29.03%) was predominant, followed by ST17, ST19, ST1, ST12, ST24, ST485 and 2 new types. In the 4 identified serotypes, Ⅰb was predominant, accounting for 45.16%, followed by Ⅲ, Ⅴ and Ⅰa. The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that 31 strains were all sensitive to ampicillin, quinupristin, linezolid and vancomycin. The highest resistance rate was 64.52% for tetracycline, followed by 58.06% for levofloxacin and 38.71% for 1clindamycin. Clindamycin resistance was only found in the Ⅰb and Ⅴ serotype strains. PCR detection of virulence genes showed that all the strains were positive for hylB, cylE, cfb and lmb genes. The carriage of bac and fbsA genes varied in strains with different serotypes, and these virulence genes were carried in almost all the Ⅰb serotype strains.ConclusionBased on MLST and serotyping, our study showed that different types of S. agalactiae had different antibiotic resistance and varied different virulence genes, suggesting that close attention should be paid to the antibiotic resistance of Ⅰb and Ⅴ serotypes and virulence genes of Ⅰb serotypes of S. agalactiae.
Identification and infection source analysis of a case of pediatric sepsis caused by Salmonella Indiana
Wenjie Gao, Wei Wang, Ping Li, Henghui Wang, Jinlei Guo, Lei Gao, Lixia Chen
2019, 34(12): 1122-1125. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.019
[Abstract](322) [FullText HTML](136) [PDF 2514KB](4) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo identify and analyze the pathogens isolated from peripheral blood and stool samples of a child with fever of unknown origin in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province, and find out source of the infection.MethodsIdentification, serotyping and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed for the pathogen strains isolated from peripheral blood and stool samples of the sick child. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the virulence genes (hilA, ssrA, mgtC, siiD, sopB, spvC).ResultsTwo pathogen strains isolated from peripheral blood and stool samples of the sick child were identified as Salmonella Indiana. The two strains carried virulence genes hilA, ssrA, mgtC, siiD and sopB, and the band similarity of two strains was 100% indicated by PFGE cluster analysis.ConclusionFever of this child was caused by the intestinal infection of S. Indiana, further resulting in sepsis. It is necessary to strengthen the laboratory based surveillance for S. Indiana in this area.
An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in elderly people in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, 2018
Hanbing Wan, Yurong Yang, Liang Lin, Jingxian Peng, Jing Wang
2019, 34(12): 1126-1129. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.020
[Abstract](727) [FullText HTML](628) [PDF 2150KB](7) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
ObjectiveTo investigate an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis(JE)in elderly people in Tuyou district of Baotou in Inner Mongolia in 2018 and provide scientific evidence for the standardized response to such events in the future.MethodsCase investigation was conducted for all cases, and the blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients were used for the detection of JE virus nucleic acid with PCR and the samples from some villagers and domestic pigs were collected for the detection of JE virus antibody with ELISA.ResultsThe outbreak occurred in August and 5 cases were reported, including 2 deaths. The cases were elderly people in rural areas with underlying diseases and without immunization histories of JE vaccine. In the 5 cases, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were negative for JE virus nucleic acid and positive for IgM antibody, while the serum samples of 5 villagers and 2 domestic pigs were IgM positive, and 108 serum samples of villagers were IgG positive.ConclusionThe investigation confirmed that an outbreak of JE occurred in elderly people in Tuyou district of Baotou in 2018, and infection of JE virus was detected in local people and pigs. The surveillance for JE and mosquito vector should be strengthened in the future.
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome — Denver, Colorado, 2018

Zhenyu Gong, Xunliang Gong
2019, 34(12): 1130-1131. DOI: 10.3784/j.issn.1003-9961.2019.12.021
[Abstract](744) [FullText HTML](244) [PDF 2035KB](6) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:
Journal of disease surveillance
2019, 34(12): 1132-1132.
[Abstract](212) [FullText HTML](108) [PDF 369KB](1) Peer reviewing opinions Related References Cited By (0) Share
Abstract:

CN 11-2928/R

ISSN 1003-9961

Established in:1986 , Monthly

Responsible Institution:National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsor: Editorial Board of Disease Surveillance,National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention,Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Citing Ranking
more >

Search Type

广西体彩11选五开奖